Troas. A Roman city on the coast of the Aegean Sea.
Surrounded by a wall 5-6 miles long, fortified with 44 towers.1
Home to perhaps 90,000 inhabitants, the city’s cultural attractions in the first century included a theater, a music hall (an odeon, a building constructed for singing, musical shows, and poetry competitions), a gymnasium (where competitive athletes could train, but also where socializing and intellectual pursuits occurred), a stadium for running events, a public bath, and many religious temples.2
A massive aqueduct transported water from Mt. Ida, 35 miles away, to sustain the city.3
During the New Testament era, it was a thriving commercial city. The population of Troas occupied itself with several different industries. Some were part of the maritime trade, others were shepherds or keepers of horses. Some were miners or loggers, others were coppersmiths. There were also farmers, merchants, and innkeepers.4
The area was home to two prominent religious establishments — the sanctuary of Athena at Ilion (Troy) and the sanctuary of Apollo Smintheus at Chrysa. Both of these gods were prominently featured on coins minted in the area. The worship of Athena required money, manpower, and sacrificial animals from surrounding cities. Athletic contests dedicated to Apollo Smintheus were a significant part of the area’s calendar.5
According to the first-century geographer Strabo, Troas was one of the most notable cities of the world.6 There were actually rumors in Rome that both Julius Caesar and Augustus thought about moving the government of the Roman world to Troas.7
But it wasn’t always so notable. What was thriving in the first century began as a small settlement in approximately 334 BC.8
The city at the eventual location of Troas was originally called Sigeia.9 But it was “refounded” in ~306 BC by Antigonus I (a successor of Alexander the Great) when he grouped the current population of Sigeia with the populations of the nearby cities of Skepsis, Cebren, Neandria, Colonae, Larisa, and Hamaxitus into one administrative entity10 11 and renamed the entire city-state Antigonia Troas. In 301 BC, it was again renamed — this time to Alexandria Troas in honor of Alexander III of Macedon.12
Troas became a Roman colony sometime between 44 and 13 BC.13
Have We Overlooked Troas?
You may not remember hearing about the city of Troas, perhaps because it doesn’t exist today. Or if you remember reading about Troas in the New Testament, you may have not thought much about it. After all, the Bible only mentions it six times — in four different passages. And in only two of those passages is it more than a passing mention. It’s easy to overlook.
But unlike some of us, Paul did not overlook the city of Troas. If we read between the lines a bit, we can theorize that Troas held Paul’s attention — because he visited the city at least three times during his second and third missionary journeys. The first two times, he stayed only briefly — which may at least partially explain why he stayed longer during his third visit.
Why would Paul think Troas was important enough to warrant such attention?
The answer may lie in two additional aspects of life in Troas that made it a very strategic city for the spread of the gospel in the first century world.
First, Troas was located on two international trade routes — one headed to Macedonia and Achaia (and beyond to Europe) and one headed to the Black Sea region. As such, it often was host to numerous travelers from other parts of the world14, and so Troas became a “gateway” city between Macedonia and Achaia on one side of the trade routes and Asia Minor and the Black Sea region on the other side of the trade routes.
We can assume that Paul knew from his work as a tentmaker that sharing the gospel in the marketplace was a vital channel for the good news to spread throughout a region. It created natural, sustained contact between believers and unbelievers as sellers, buyers, and traders interacted on a daily basis.
An Artificial Harbor
Secondly, Troas was the location of a large artificial harbor — the best harbor in the region, in fact.
Prior to the construction of the harbor, ships wanting to sail through the Dardanelles Strait to reach the Black Sea region (and its substantial trade opportunities) faced strong winds from the north and swift currents which flowed southward through the strait. This left sailors with one of two choices: journey overland or find a convenient shelter to wait for an easing or shifting of the wind (this would allow them to make a run through the strait). Before the artificial harbor was built at Troas, sailors might have to wait days or weeks on the island of Tenedos or in the city of Abydos.
And those wishing to reach Asia Minor from Macedonia or Achaia would have to travel overland through the region of Thrace which was populated by warring tribes.
But the construction of the artificial harbor allowed sailors to easily shelter at Troas prior to making a run through the Dardanelles Strait (and these sailors would naturally spend time in Troas while they waited for favorable weather conditions) or travel across the Aegean to Macedonia or Achaia. And the harbor also allowed travelers from Macedonia or Achaia to travel by boat across the Aegean Sea, land at Troas, and then travel overland into Asia Minor and regions beyond.15
Troas: A Strategic Place
Troas was a hub for foreign travelers who came from many different parts of the world, who would travel to other parts of the world, and who would eventually return to where their travels originated. As they engaged in trade or waited in the city for favorable weather conditions, they were more likely to interact with Jesus followers. And reaching these travelers for Jesus had far-reaching implications as they would take the gospel back to their homelands.
Buyers who were reached with the gospel would take the good news to nearby regions. Traders who were reached with the gospel would take the good news to far-off lands located along the trade routes they routinely followed. Sailors who were reached with the gospel would take the good news to ports throughout the known world.
Would Paul and the apostolic band reach these buyers, traders, and sailors? Most likely not in a span of seven days. But those Paul reached and discipled would reach the buyers, the traders, and the sailors. Those whom Paul reached and discipled would become the leaders of the church at Troas.
For this reason, we believe Paul would have seen Troas as a strategic place in God’s plan to reach people throughout the region and even in far-off lands.
Paul’s Visits to Troas
Paul visited Troas three times (as far as we know) with his visits spread out over his second and third missionary journeys. He recognized Troas’ significance, and so he kept coming back. His first two visits were quick.
We learn about Paul’s first visit to Troas in Acts 16:6-10. Traveling from the Phrygian and Galatian regions, the Holy Spirit had prevented Paul and his companions from speaking the word in Asia and Bithynia. Continuing in their previous direction, they arrived at Troas. But a vision appeared to Paul in the night (perhaps their first night in Troas although this is not explicitly stated), and in this vision, a Macedonian man appealed to Paul and asked him to come to Macedonia and help them. Paul and his companions immediately sailed to Macedonia.
Paul’s second visit to Troas is described in 2 Corinthians 2:12-13. Paul had earlier sent a stern letter, delivered by Titus, to the church at Corinth regarding serious problems within the believing community.16 It seems that Paul had arranged to meet Titus in Troas, so he left Ephesus (where he is believed to have written the stern letter) and traveled to Troas. In 2 Corinthians 2:12, Paul says that when he came to Troas this time, intending to preach the gospel (he came “for the gospel of Christ”), he met with some initial success (”a door was opened for me in the Lord”), but he was worried because Titus had not yet arrived. So he cut short his visit to Troas and left for Macedonia to look for Titus.
So Paul visits Troas once, but immediately leaves for Macedonia as a result of a vision. He visits Troas a second time, but cuts his visit short as he again leaves for Macedonia, this time looking for Titus.
But then he visits a third time. We’re told about his third visit in Acts 20:1-12. Paul and his companions had been in Macedonia and Greece. He was going to set sail for Syria, intending to arrive in Jerusalem by the Day of Pentecost. But when a plot against him was discovered, he and his companions decided to travel back through Macedonia. Paul and Luke stayed in Philippi for five days (for the Feast of Unleavened Bread), sending the rest of their companions ahead to wait for them at Troas.
We know that Paul wanted to check in with the church in Ephesus because after leaving Troas, he called for the elders of the Ephesian church to meet with him at Miletus. He had already spent over two years in Ephesus, and he was committed to preaching the gospel where Christ was not yet named17, so instead of spending the little time he had in Ephesus, he spent seven days in Troas. He remembered that God had provided an open door for the gospel the last time he was in Troas — when his visit had been cut short — and we can imagine that he was determined to preach the gospel in such a strategic place.
A Different Gathering
While in the strategic city of Troas, Paul gathered with the believers there on the first day of the week. But this gathering, described in Acts 20:7-12, was quite different than a typical church gathering today. It was different than our modern-day gatherings in terms of its purpose, place, nature, and duration.
First, this first century church gathering was different than our present-day meetings in terms of its purpose.
We’re told in verse 7 that the purpose of the gathering was “to break bread.”
The reason for the gathering wasn’t to sing, it wasn’t to take an offering, it wasn’t to make announcements about what else was happening during the week, it wasn’t to hear preaching and teaching, it wasn’t to have an altar call. Instead, the purpose of the gathering was to break bread — to share a meal together.
This seems odd to us, primarily because we tend not to understand the significance of a meal in the first century world.
Paul and at least one of his companions (Timothy whose mother was Jewish18) were immersed in Middle Eastern culture.
In first century Middle Eastern thought, sharing a meal together was a symbol of intimacy and deep friendship. If you joined someone at the table for a meal, you were saying to them, “I want to be your close friend. I desire an intimate relationship with you.”
Paul was accompanied on his journey not only by Timothy, but also by Sopater of Berea, Aristarchus and Secundus from Thessalonica, Gaius from Derbe, Tychicus and Trophimus from the province of Asia, and Luke. Given their birthplaces as well as the origin of their names, these were most likely Gentiles (although they could have been Gentile converts to Judaism prior to their conversion to Christ), raised in the Greco-Roman world.
In Greco-Roman society, clubs and associations played integral roles, and their traditional fellowship meals were a central part of life in the Greek and Roman city-states of that era. In fact, social relationships were “sanctified and solidified” by partaking a common meal together.19 Paul’s Gentile companions would have known what significance a meal held in their society.
When Luke tells us in Acts 20 that the purpose of the church gathering in Troas was “to break bread,” the purpose of the meeting he implies (to further the depth of relationship, to sanctify and solidify relationships) would have seemed natural to those who participated.
Secondly, this first century church gathering was different than our present-day meetings in terms of its place.
Verse 8 tells us that the gathering took place in an “upper room.” This was almost certainly an upstairs room in a private home or apartment.
Private homes were common meeting places for the first-century church. Acts 2:42-47 tells us that the over three thousand new converts on the Day of Pentecost, along with the one-hundred-twenty believers who were in the upper room in Acts 1, were “continually devoting themselves to the apostles’ teaching and to fellowship, to the breaking of bread and to prayer,” and were “continuing with one mind in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house” as they “were taking their meals together with gladness and sincerity of heart, praising God and having favor with all the people.”
It’s important to note that the first-century Jerusalem church met both in the temple (large gatherings at Solomon’s Portico, a public open-air part of the temple) and from house to house (small gatherings in private homes). This dynamic (large, public meetings combined with small house meetings) contributed to “the Lord … adding to their number day by day …”
This was not just a practice of the church in Jerusalem. Romans 16:15, 1 Corinthians 16:19, Colossians 4:15, and Philemon 2 all speak of churches meeting in the homes of believers in Rome and Asia Minor. And in Acts 20:20, Paul reminds the Ephesian elders that he had taught them “publicly and from house to house.”
The first-century church grew (in number and in devotion to Jesus) through not only large, public meetings but also through small, private gatherings.
In his book Evangelism in the Early Church, Michael Green says that household evangelism “is a significant feature in the New Testament … Jason’s house at Thessalonica was used for this purpose20; so was that of Titius Justus, situated provocatively opposite the synagogue (with which Paul had broken) at Corinth.21 Philip’s house at Caesarea seems to have been a most hospitable place, where not only visiting seafarers like Paul and his company but wandering charismatics like Agabus were made welcome.22 Both Lydia’s house and the jailer’s at Philippi were used as evangelistic centres23, and Stephanas apparently used his home at Corinth in the same way. His household was baptized by St. Paul in person, no doubt after some instruction in basic Christianity and a profession of faith24, and we subsequently learn that he used his home ‘for the service of the saints’.25 The very earliest Christian community met in the upper room of a particular house owned by the mother of John Mark in Jerusalem.26 It is hardly surprising that the ‘church in the house’ became a crucial factor in the spread of the Christian faith.”
Thirdly, this first century church gathering was different than our present-day meetings in terms of its nature.
Verse 7 says that during the house meeting, Paul began talking.
The Greek word that is translated “talking” is dialegomai. The translation “talking” — or “preaching” as the King James Version renders it — doesn’t really do justice to the meaning of the word. A better translation would be “discussing” or “conversing.”
The Greek word for “talking” in verse 11 is actually a different word (homileo), but it also has a sense of conversing in a group.
While Paul did address a specific subject (and that’s suggested by the language in verse 7 that says Paul “prolonged his message until midnight”), it wasn’t a monologue. It had the nature of a dialogue — of a conversation. It was a discussion between Paul and those who were at the house meeting regarding the subject(s) Paul wanted to address.
“Paul’s teaching style was to have a lengthy two-way discussion — not a monologue — with questions and answers and more questions and ideas being formulated as the evening unfolded, albeit with Paul probably making the dominant contribution. This kind of interactive discussion and learning was the typical method employed whenever any kind of instruction was taking place in the early house churches.”27
Discussions regarding philosophy, politics, and morality were a common feature of the fellowship meals organized by clubs and associations in Greco-Roman society, and there were at least two trade guilds in Troas (one for coppersmiths and one for merchants)28 — it would have therefore been a normal activity for the attendees to participate in such conversations.
Finally, this first century church gathering was different than our present-day meetings in terms of its duration.
It’s possible the house meeting lasted for upwards of ten hours.
It appears that the meeting may have begun after dark since Luke notes the presence of many lamps in the upper room where the believers had gathered (and it makes sense that the meeting might take place at night since many of the attendees might not have been able to attend until their daily labor had finished). Adam Clarke hypothesized that the meeting may have begun at 7:00 pm (his estimate of the time of sunset in Troas) and may have ended the next day at 5:00 am (his estimate of the time of sunrise in Troas).29
What Can We Learn?
Acts 20:7-12 presents us with a picture of a ten-hour church gathering characterized by deep conversation about the kingdom of God that led to a deepening of relationships between those who participated.
There is some debate among those who study the Scriptures as to whether this passage is meant to merely be descriptive (describing what happened with the forms only being applicable to that meeting — at that time and in that place) or whether it should be taken as prescriptive (as a binding pattern of church life for all times and all places). However that question is ultimately answered, there are lessons for us in the account.
Here’s the main lesson for us today — no matter what the specific format of our church meetings,
discipleship (which ideally is seen as happening prior to conversion as well as after conversion) and leadership training are most effective when they place people (believers and unbelievers) into deep relationships with each other where they can have ongoing, extensive discussions about God’s kingdom and its implications for their lives.
Switzerland: A Strategic Place
The modern country of Switzerland is surprisingly similar to the first-century city of Troas in several ways.
For example, Switzerland has four main linguistic/cultural regions: German, French, Italian, and Romansh.30
Some regions of Switzerland are strongly connected culturally to the neighboring countries which share their languages — especially since there are no passport controls between Switzerland and its five neighboring countries (although customs control still exists).31
So reaching someone in the German-speaking Swiss city of Altdorf, for example, may ultimately be strategic for reaching the German city of Tengen, only two-and-a-half miles away from Altdorf.
Zooming out to a broader geographical perspective, Switzerland is located where Western, Central, and Southern Europe meet. This is similar to Troas’ location along two trade routes. Just as Troas was a “gateway” city between Macedonia/Achaia and Asia Minor/The Black Sea Region, Switzerland can be seen as a “gateway” country between western, central, and southern Europe. As part of the Schengen Area, Swiss citizens are not subject to border control when traveling to and from 25 other European countries. Those who are reached for Jesus in Switzerland have the ability to travel freely and proclaim the gospel throughout much of Europe.
And zooming out even further, the Swiss cities of Zürich, Geneva, and Basel are home to several international organizations, including the World Trade Organization, the World Health Organization, the World Economic Forum, the International Labour Organization, the headquarters of the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA), the second largest office of the United Nations, the Bank for International Settlements, the International Olympic Committee, the International Telecommunication Union, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, and about 200 other international organisations.32 As such, Switzerland is home to citizens of the majority of the world’s countries.
For example, 162 countries (not including Switzerland itself or the European Community) are members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Another 25 countries have observer status.33 Approximately 177 of those 187 countries have resident delegations to the World Trade Organization.34 So there are people from at least 177 different countries living in Switzerland just from the delegations to the World Trade Organization.
Over twenty-five percent of Switzerland’s population is made up of resident foreigners (this is one of the largest proportions in the developed world). On top of that, nearly 35 percent of the permanent resident population aged 15 or over have an immigrant background. Almost two-thirds of Switzerland’s permanent residents speak more than one language regularly (learning one of the national languages at school — not your own language — is compulsory in Swiss schools).35
The presence of so many international organizations and such a high proportion of both foreign and permanent residents who are immigrants or have an immigrant background make Switzerland, like Troas, a hub for foreign travelers who come from many different parts of the world, who travel to other parts of the world, and who will eventually return to where their travels originate.
So Switzerland is not only strategic in reaching the five countries which border it or the twenty additional countries which are part of the Schengen Area, but it may be strategic in reaching countries around the world.
And one last piece of information is fascinating. Compared to its evangelical population, Switzerland sends more missionaries than any other country in the world. The conversion of a resident of Switzerland to Jesus has the potential to be more far-reaching than it might appear on the surface.36
But how can the 8.6 million residents of Switzerland (only three percent of whom are followers of Jesus) be reached with the gospel?
Would a strategy similar to that which Paul employed in Troas be effective in Switzerland?
Would reaching and discipling residents of Switzerland through placing believers and unbelievers into deep relationships with one another be effective?
Would facilitating ongoing, extensive discussions between Swiss believers and unbelievers about God’s kingdom and its implications for their lives produce mature leaders?
Would reaching the Swiss with the good news through a network of home meetings characterized by ongoing relationship-building and dialog be a catalyst for reaching the residents of areas in Germany, France, and Italy which border Switzerland?
Would reaching foreign residents of Switzerland through such gatherings be an incendiary spark for reaching people around the world?
Bob and Erin Stetz aim to find out.
The Stetz Family
Bob and Erin Stetz, along with their children Annika and Josiah, are Assemblies of God missionaries to Switzerland.
Just before Bob and Erin met, Bob spent a year in Europe — six months as a construction worker in Switzerland and six months in Germany as a cow farmer. During this time, Bob saw how few of the people in Switzerland and Germany were following Jesus. The spark of a vision was planted in Bob’s heart.
Bob and Erin met in 2004 at Harvest Ridge Church. Not long after, Bob was hired as the worship/life groups pastor at the church, and then Bob and Erin were married in 2006.
Several years later, Bob was working out with a friend and found himself telling his friend, “If I could do anything, I would be in Germany or Switzerland, building God’s Kingdom.” The spark was still there. When Bob came home that night, he told Erin what had happened. She said “Yes” to the desire that would become the passion of their lives — investing their lives in building relationships with people they would encounter in Switzerland and Germany, discipling them from unbelief to a mature Christian faith, and raising up leaders to plant additional churches in Switzerland and Southern Germany.
In 2016, they moved to southern Germany and served as missionary associates — learning the German language and culture — until 2018, when they returned to the United States to prepare for further service in Switzerland and Germany. They were approved as fully appointed missionaries to Switzerland in 2019 and then raised financial and prayer support until November 2020 when they returned to Southern Germany to begin a four-year term.
Because of a Swiss law passed in 2002 which restricts work permits for people from non-European countries, they are unable to live in Switzerland at the moment. So they are living near the town of Lörrach, close to the Swiss border in southwestern Germany.
Their vision for this four-year term is to:
Plant over five new home churches with a relational focus. Bob and Erin will establish rhythms of everyday life to introduce believers and unbelievers to each other and will teach others to do the same.
For example, people in Switzerland and Germany love to go on Sunday walks (stores are closed on Sundays). Bob and Erin are going on walks — always at the same time — and plan to invite others to walk with them. In fact, there is a path outside the house in which they currently live. They have put out chairs and a table in their yard and have started regularly sitting outside where people walk by. They are creating the equivalent of a “front porch” — not necessarily a place, but a rhythm of life in which relationships can begin.
Disciple 300 people to become mature followers of Jesus. Bob and Erin will work to form communities in which people can enter into deep relationships and have ongoing, extensive discussions about God’s kingdom and its implications for their lives.
Train over 50 people as missional leaders who will evangelize and plant new churches. Bob and Erin will take disciples on a journey, showing them what God’s kingdom is all about, then release them to make disciples who will make more disciples. From this process, a church-planting movement will be born in Switzerland!
How to Join the Stetz Family in Reaching Switzerland for Jesus
If you’ve read our pillar articles (which can be reached through the tabs at the top of the site if you are using a desktop or the three-bar/”hamburger” menu if you are using a mobile device), you know that our conviction is that all believers should be part of a team seeking to reach the unreached. Some will go, some will pray, some will provide financial support, some will provide logistical support — but all are called to give their lives to reach the nations.
After reading about Bob and Erin and the strategy God has given them for reaching Switzerland, you may find that your heart is drawn to their ministry — that their mission and approach resonate with you deeply.
If this describes your reaction to learning about Bob and Erin and their ministry, here are five ways you can be a part of their team:
- You can take the time to learn more about their ministry through their Spark Switzerland website. You can also visit their Assemblies of God missionary profile.
- You can also watch these video interviews to learn more: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4PKbCz_LkuI&t=476s and https://www.facebook.com/missionsencountercafe/videos/286706425949693
- You can pray for Bob and Erin and their family on an ongoing basis. The best way to stay informed of their prayer needs is by subscribing to their newsletter or following them on Facebook.
- You can support Bob and Erin financially by signing up to support them on a monthly basis or to contribute a one-time gift at their online giving page.
- You can consider physically joining Bob and Erin to aid the work in Switzerland and southern Germany. If God is speaking to you, contact Bob and Erin through their website for more information.
- If you are a pastor or missions leader in your church, we would encourage you to get in touch with Bob and Erin to see how they might be able to encourage your people for the cause of missions in Switzerland and also to find out how you can be of service to them.
1 Cbaykal. “Alexandria Troas.” Bits & Pieces, 10 Jan. 2019, jcbaykal.wordpress.com/2012/12/01/alexander-troas. Accessed 22 August 2021.
2 Thompson, Glen. “Alexandria Troas: Greek Synoecism, Roman Colony, Christian Center.” Academia, 1990, www.academia.edu/15877002/Alexandria_Troas_Greek_Synoecism_Roman_Colony_Christian_Center. Accessed 22 August 2021.
3 Sansal, Burak. “Alexandria Troas.” All About Turkey, 2021, www.allaboutturkey.com/alexandria_troas.html. Accessed 22 August 2021.
4 Thompson, Glen L., “Alexandria Troas: Greek Synoecism, Roman Colony, Christian Center”.
6 Belleville, Linda. 2 Corinthians (IVP New Testament Commentary Series). Downers Grove, IL, IVP Academic, 1996. Accessed online 21 August 2021 at https://www.biblegateway.com/resources/ivp-nt/Evangelism-Troas.
7 Hemer, C.J., 1975. Alexandria Troas. Tyndale Bulletin, [online] 26, pp.79-112. Available at: https://legacy.tyndalehouse.com/tynbul/Library/TynBull_1975_26_04_Hemer_AlexandriaTroas.pdf. Accessed 14 August 2021.
9 “Alexandria Troas”. 2013. en.wikipedia.org. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandria_Troas. Accessed 22 August 2021.
10 Hemer, Alexandria Troas.
11 Thompson, Glen L., “Alexandria Troas: Greek Synoecism, Roman Colony, Christian Center”.
12 “Alexandria Troas”. en.wikipedia.org
13 Thompson, Glen L., “Alexandria Troas: Greek Synoecism, Roman Colony, Christian Center”.
14 Hemer, Alexandria Troas.
15 Keener, Craig S., and John H. Walton. NIV, Cultural Backgrounds Study Bible. Kindle ed., Grand Rapids, MI, Zondervan, 2017, p. 6621.
16 Powers, Will. “Chronology of Corinthians.” AbideInChrist.com, 2018, www.abideinchrist.com/messages/chroncor.html. Accessed 22 August 2021.
17 Romans 15:20.
18 Acts 16:1
19 Jamir, Lanuwabang. Exclusion and Judgment in Fellowship Meals: The Socio-Historical Background of 1 Corinthians 11:17–34. Kindle ed., Eugene, OR, Pickwick Publications, 2016, 20.
20 Acts 17:5
21 Acts 18:7
22 Acts 21:8
23 Acts 16:15, 32-34
24 1 Corinthians 1:16
25 1 Corinthians 16:15
26 Acts 1:13f, 12:12
27 Rad, Zdero. Global House Church Movement. Pasadena, CA, William Carey Library, 2013, 30.
28 Thompson, Glen L., “Alexandria Troas: Greek Synoecism, Roman Colony, Christian Center”.
29 “Acts 20 – Adam Clarke Commentary – Bible Commentaries.” StudyLight.Org, 1832, www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/acc/acts-20.html. Accessed 22 August 2021.
30 Contributors to Wikimedia projects. “Switzerland.” Wikipedia, 2001, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switzerland. Accessed 22 August 2021.
31 Contributors to Wikimedia projects. “Switzerland–European Union Relations.” Wikipedia, 2006, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switzerland%E2%80%93European_Union_relations. Accessed 22 August 2021.
32 “Switzerland”. 2001. Wikipedia.org.
33 “WTO Members and Observers.” World Trade Organization, 2021, www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/org6_e.htm. Accessed 22 August 2021.
34 “DG Azevêdo Meets with Participants of Geneva Week for Non-Resident Members and Observers.” World Trade Organization, 2019, www.wto.org/english/news_e/news19_e/dgra_08may19_e.htm. Accessed 22 August 2021.
35 “Switzerland”. 2001. Wikipedia.org.
36 Mandryk, Jason. Operation World: The Definitive Prayer Guide to Every Nation. 7th ed., Downers Grove, IL, IVP Books, 2010, 799-801.